WIEN 1986



Introduction 7 Text and Translation 13 Notes 61 Bibliography 83



One of the most prominent and outstanding fig- ures within the Indian Madhyamaka tradition pertain- ing to the rigid, uncompromising school of Prisan- gika is icirya Candrakïrti.

Due to the recent discovery of Bhavya's (AD 500 - 570) latest treatise Madhyamakaratnapradlpa (in- dited ca. 565),which carries substantial and con- clusive implications for the relative chronology of some of the leading personages within Mâdhyamika as well asYogâcira branchesofBuddhism,wearefor- tunately capable of readjusting his proximatevixit

- at least as a temporary working hypothesis - to AD 530 - 600 1).

1. Triêaranasaptati (T^S) - its authenticity.

Scrutinizing T^S and its sources the follow- ing external as well as internal criteria may thus be established:

External criteria:

A. The colophons {parbyah)of all Tibetan re- censions unanimously identify the author

1) For various narratives on Candrakïrtifs vita cf. Dhivasekera, J (Ed.): Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, III,pp.649-655.Colombo.Fora brief discus- sion of Candrakirti•s authorship and date pro- viding the plausible terminusante and post quern

(rtsom pa po) as Zla ba grags pa. Transla- tors: Mahâpandita Dïpamkaras'rïjnàna (Atiéa) AD 980 - 1054 and Lotsiva Rin chen bzan po

AD 958-1055.

B. Testimonia provided by quotations in e.g. Bhavya'sMadhyamakaratnaprad^tpa, thePanca- skandhaprakarana by Candraklrti himself and Haribhadra's Abhisamayalamkäralokä Prajnä- päramita, vide infra.

Internal criteria:

A.Numerousallusions toNagärjuna'sMMK,RÄ, Catuhstava, and, above all, the authors own magnum opus MA(Bha).

B. Acquainted with the style of Candraklrti even in its Tibetan garb - and with his PP along with the usage of various distinct phrases characteristically and constantly employed by Candraklrti, the authorship of TSS can hardly be ascribed to anyone else but him.

C. Although not presenting a philosophical or scholastic theme in general the author is certainly well established in the renowned Madhyamikatradition - cf.thenotes.

inthelightofMad.hyamakaratnaprad%pa,a text, which has been the object of scrutiny for some years by Dr. Christian Lindtner and the present author, cf. Lindtner, Chr. AO 40 (1979) pp. 87 -

91.Ontheauthenticityofthelatterwork, cf. also Lindtner, Chr. AdversariaBuddhioa,WZKS 26

(1982) pp. 172 - 184.

In sum, the authorship ascribed to Candrakïr- ti seems highly plausible.

2. TSS - Theme, genre and sources.

As may be deduced from its very title this small-length poem adresses itself to a much wider audience than most of his other independent works, predominantly his scholastic Madhyamakävatärabkäsya

(MABhä) as well as his commentatorial writings i.e.
his MMK-exegetical treatise Prasannapadâ (PP), his Sünyatasaptativrtti (SSV), Yuktisastikavvtti (YSV) and Catuhêatakatlkâ (C^T) 2)•

Nowhere, however, does the author explicitly reveal his prayojana - the propaedeutic scope of TSS - yet, an analysis of the text clearly indi- cates his objective: a poetic introduction to lay- buddhists fromtheview-pointofMahäyäna.Infact, Triéarana or Triratna, the Three Refuges or Three Jewels not only encompass the whole of Buddhism as such, but even constitute a convenient summa of this pivotal trinity also.

Though occasional polemics towards the other majortraditioninBuddhism,Hïnayâna aremetwith, Candrakïrtihasevidently adopted quiteaconcili- atory tone which may signal that T^S may be viewed as an apologetic endeavour. In this respect it thus shares some genre-traits in common with parts of Nigirjuna's didactic-apologetic poem Ratnâvalï.

2) For these abbreviations and further reference, cf.Lindtner AO 40 (1979) pp. 88-89.


Candrakïrti's major sources for TSS are natu- rally the basic treatises of Mâdhyamika, mainly the writings of Nägärjuna, such as his fundamental Mltla- madhyamakakârikâ (MMK) (two stanzas TSS 12-13 = MMK XV 1-2), the panegyrical hymns Catuhstava, besides, as alluded above, Ratnâvalt.

In addition to these standard sources pertain- ingtothefoldofhisown,wemay alsocountwrit- ingssuchasVasubandhu's renownedAbhidharmakoêa-

(bhâsya) (AK(Bhä)) among his sources of inspiration and reference.

In question of vestiges of the canonical tra- dition (âgama) testimonia are provided by e.g. the vast Prajnâpâramitâ-literature and, as explicitly stated, the Daéabhûmikasutra.

3. Synopsis

Albeit not displaying a strict, compositional coherence in all regards, the overall structure is nevertheless fairly consistent and systematic as may be gauged by the following synopsis.

The Tibetan textusreceptusof TSS, which com- prises 68 strophes in all originally composed in anustubh,furnish us with a structure conveniently to be subsumed under the three headings, which con- stitute Triêarana: Buddha,DharmaandSamgha.

Prooemium: Triêarana [1. éarana]Buddha

[2. éarana]Dharma Buddha

[3. êarana]Samgha Triêarana Samgha

stanza i


12-21 22-24 25-28 29-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-47 48-49 50-63 64-67


Buddha Punyaparinâmanâ

4. Tibetan translation

of TSS


Apart from a few verses in sanskrit traced in Buddhist literature we unfortunately only possess a Tibetan version of TSS.

TSS is found included twice in the extant edi- tions of the Tibetan bsTan-'gyur. Both recensions (A and B) appear each to be faithfully transmitted down through the editions of bsTan-'gyur and only a


very small number of vaviae leationes within each recension can thus be noted. As a rule recension A has been adopted as the basic text. Whenever alter- native readings from B are preferred as well as re~ jected, and whenever other readings may have been chosen for philological or philosophical reasons, these variant readings have all been duly noted in the apparatus.


N: sNar-than bsTan-'gyur

  1. N(A)  A: No. 3357

  2. N(B)  B: No. 3469

P: Peking bsTan-'gyur

  1. P(A)  A: No. 5366

  2. P(B)  B: No. 5478

D: sDe-dge bsTan-fgyur

  1. D(A)  A: No. 3971

  2. D(B)  B: No. 4564

C: Co-ne bsTan-'gyur C(A) A: No. [190

khi 279b3 - 282bl gi 230b2 - 233b3

khi 291a6 - 295al gi 242a2 - 245a5

gi 251al - 253b2 Jo bo'i chos chun 202al - 204bl

(Vol. 133)]
gi 262al-264b2


Text and translation


I TRISARANASAPTATI | [CN 279b3)CP 291a6)CD 251al)CC 262al)]

rgyagarskaddu |triSa1)ranasapta'
bod skad du | gsum la skyabs su 'gro ba bdun cu pa |

'phags pa 'jam dpal gSon nur gyur pa la phyag 'tshal loI

I dge bsnen gsum la skyabs 'gro ba |
| de ni sdom brgyad rtsa ba yin |
| sans rgyas de'i chos dge 'dun (P 291b) ni | | thar pa 'dod pa rnams kyi skyabs |

dus gsum lam las nes grol 2in | s*es bya la ni bio rnam rgyas | rmons pa'i zum pa bcom pas na | sans rgyas pad ma ltar rnam rgyas

thog mtha' med pa'i srid pa ru | ma rig gnid kyis log pa yi | 'gro la gan gan snan de de |

brtsun te rmi lam lta bur 'dod I

1) êe P(A) 2) eapta NDC (AB) 3) N(B) adds ka lede'i:deN(B)
2b rnam NPDC(A) rgyas NP(B)DC(A): rnams NP(B) rgyal 3b yi : yis NP(DCXB); 3d te NP(B): de P(A) NP(A)



HomagetotheNobleManjuârïKumärabhüta (*nama aryamanjuériye kumärabhUtäya).

A lay-disciple's (upasaka) resort to the Three [Refuges]

( (éarana)trayagamana)

is rooted in the eight obligations


Buddha, his Law (Dharma) and the Congregation (samgha)

constitute a refugium (éarana) to those seeking Liberation (mumuksunam)

When safely beyond (vinirmukta) the orbit {mâr*ga) of the three times (traikalya)

the intellect (buddhi) expanding (*vikaéita) over [all] knowable [objects]

and [when] having overcome the closure
(unmesaj zum pa) of ignorance (moha)

[a Bodhisattva-candidate eventually becomes]
a Buddha unfolding (vibuddha) like a lotus



Whatever appears totheworld {jagat),

which has been drowsing (supta) in [the sleep of] ignorance(avidya(nidrâ)),

in [this empirical] existence _without beginningandend (anavaragrabhava)

isstated[byBuddha]tobefalse (mrsä)and
to resemble a drêàm (svapna)

I ma rig gnid ni rgyun chad ein |

  • |  yan dag ye Ses nés 'byun bas |

  • |  gafi gig rnam sad de sans rgyas

  • |  skyes bu gnid sans ji bfin no |

  • |  yan dag de nid ston mdzad ein |

  • |  mi mkhas sems can rtogs mdzad pas |

  • |  des kyan sans rgyas sans rgyas dan

  • |  de yan sans rgyas dan mtshuns 'dod



  • |  ye êes bla na med pa yis |

  • |  yan na de nid thugs chud pa'am |

  • |  2i ba nid kyis rtogs sans rgyas |

  • |  de bas sans rgyas sans rgyas 'dod

    4c rnam sad : rnams de C (A)J 4d sans : sad NP(B) 5a yah dag de nid : Themis pro: de nid yah dag ? 5b pas : las NP(B); 5c des : das C(A)


Those who have completely woken up {viprabuddha)

by discontinuing [*viccheda) the sleep of ignorance (avidyânidra)

and secured [liberation] by means of
correct Gnosis {samyagjnana)

are [denoted] Buddha[s] [Awaked Ones] like(yatha) a person aroused from sleep (prabuddhapurusa).


Because [he] has demonstrated {*deêaya-) Reality {tattva) correctly

and [because he] has brought benighted (*avicaksana, avidvat)persons(sattva)

to enlightenment(bodhaya-)

precisely therefore is a Buddha [considered] a Buddha ['Enlightened One1]

[but] even this [i.e. newly-enlightened person] too is maintained to be as a Buddha himself.

A Buddha is known {*budh~) [to others]

qua [perfections in] [his] unsurpassed Gnosis (anuttarajnäna)

[his] comprehension (*avabudh-, adhigam-) of Reality {tattva) or qua [his] tranquillity


precisely therefore is Buddha considered a Buddha.


I sans rgyas kyi ni gzugs kyi sku | | mtshan dan dpe byad dag gis "bar | | 'grobarangimospayi|
| dban gis sna tshogs skur 'dzin gan

bsod nams tshogs ni tshad med las | 'khruns pa de ni (N 280a) rgyal ba'i sras

sa bcu la ni gnas rnams kyis | mthon bar gyur na sku de yis I

| chos kyi rdzogs Ions spyod 'di ni | rgyal sras rnams ni spyod pa yin | | rgyal ba sku de la bfugs nas |
| bla med byafî chub thugs su chud |

7c yi : yis NP(DC) (B);
7d gis : gi NP(DC) (B);skur : sku N(B) 8d na NP(DC)(B): pa NPDC (A)


The form-body (rupakaya) of the Buddha[s] flashes with its [32] marks (laksana) and

[80] [minor] characteristics \anuvyanjana) ;

What is believed as a variegated body {oitrarupa)

by the world {jagat) under the influence of its owndevotionalattitude (svâdhimoksavaéât).

That is born from an immeasurable collection of merit (punyasambhära):

When being observed by the Sons of the Victor

(jinaputra) abiding on the ten[th] stage[s]{bhümi)

qua this body

[The Buddhas displaying] full enjoyment (sambhoga) of the Dharma

this [spectacle] is entertained by the Sons of the Victor;

When the Victors have assumed such a medium
[i.e. Bliss-body (sambhogakâya)]

they attain (*sambodhana) the unsurpassed enlightenment {anuttarabodhi).


110 I
| ye Ses spros pa med pa gan |
| êes bya skye med pa las byun | | sans rgyas rnams kyi chos sku de | ye êes tshogs las byun ba yin |

| sans rgyas rnams kyi ma 'dres chos | | khyad par 'phags pa bco brgyad dan | | sans rgyas rnams kyi stobs sogs kyis | | (P 292a) ye êes de ni yan dag brgyan |

112 |
na sambhavah svabhâvasya yuktah pratyayahetubhih hetupratyayasambhutah svabhävah krtako bhavet ||

lOd lib


| no bo nid ni rgyu rkyen las |
| 'byun bar 'gyur pa rigs min te | | rgyu dan rkyen las byun ba ni | | ran bêin bcos ma yin par 'gyur |

yin P (B)DC(A(B)): ni N(AB)P(A)
khyad par rphags pa NP(DC)(B): stobs dan Idanpa NPDC(A)
bar 'gyur pa : ba yin par NP(DC)(B)


110 I

The Gnosis (jnâna) bereft of thought-and-word [contructions] {nisprapanoa)

accrues from the non-production of the cognizable objects (jneya)[of cognition]:

this is the Dharma-body (dharmakâya)
of the Buddhas

produced fromthecollectionofGnosis


This Gnosis [of the Victor] is perfectly

embellished by the eighteen (astâdaéa) distinguished

{*visista) characteristics unique {âvenikadharma)

to the Buddhas (buddhanam) and [by] the [ten] powers {bala) etc. of the

Buddhas (buddhânâm).

It is not valid that own-being (svabhäva) is produced from causes and conditions

(hetupratyaya); Produced from causes and conditions

own-being wouldbeconstructed{krtaka).


i 3-3 I
svabhävah krtako nima bhavisyati punah kathain akrtrimah svabhavo hi nirapeksah paratra ca ||

| no bo nid kyi bcos ma ru |
| ji ltar yan (C 262b) ni fgyur pa yin | |bcos (D251b)mamayinnoboni|
| gfan la bltos pa yod ma yin |

114 I
| chos rnams nid kyi fio bo ni |
| thams cad yod pa ma yin te |
| de phyir skad cig gcig gis ni |
| bde gsegs thams cad mkhyen par 'dod

ma rig non mons can byas rtog | ran gi no bo sgro btags 'dod | byis pa rnams kyi 'khor ba'i rgyu de rtog gyur pa log êes yin |

15a rig : rtogs N(B);
15b rah gi : gah gis NP(DC)(B); 15d rtog : rtogs NPDC(A);


113 I
How could own-being in any possible way be constructedI

[By definition]: An unconstructed{akrtrima) [i.e. genuine] own-being (svabhâva)

is eo ipso {hi) independent {nirapeksa) of anything else.

114 1
The proper nature of any norm of

existence (dharmanam) does not exist as a [homogeneous] whole

(thams cad, *sarva) ', Consequently (tasmât, atah) Sugata is

maintained to [attain the status of] being Omniscient


Conceptual construction (*klp~) produced{krta) [from] ignorance (avidyâ) [still]


postulates [by function] an [unfounded]
dedication {samâropa) of own-being {svabhâva)

[to any phenomena]

the conceptual construction (*kalpita) of this the cause of migration{samsara)

of fools {bâlhnâm) is [in fact] false knowledge {mithyajnâna) .

116 1 I

| | |

|17| | | | |

ma rig non mons med yod pas | rnam pa kun mkhyen spans pa nid slob ma ran sans rgyas dag gi | byan chub dfios po med pa yin |

rgyal bas dfios po de rnams ni | gzugs brnan dan yan fdra mkhyen pas gnis med ye §es ma rig zad |
êes bya skye med par rab phye |

| | | |

de bas de ni curtzad kyafi|
mi mkhyen ci yan ston mi mdzad |

sans rgyas nam mkha1 ji b2in du de ltar chos nid la rab bzugs |

16c gi NP(DC)(B) : gis NPDC(A);
17a bas : ba P(A); 17d par : pas NPDC(B)



An ignorance (avidyâ) [though] bereft of

[any] passion-affliction{aklista) is [anyway conducive to] a total opposition to

the Omni-modal Gnosis (sarvâkârajnatâ)

The [two forms of] enlightenment ^bodhi) of Disciples {êaiksa i.e. Srävaka) and

Solitary Buddhas (Pratyekabuddha) issheer non-entity(abhäva).

117 |

The Victors [indeed] comprehend that these [empirical] entities {ime bhâvâh)

are but [intrinsically inexistent]
like reflections {pratibimbavat)

inasmuch as they discern (*pravicaya-) the coqnizable (jneya) to be

[[onto]logically] unproduced


[acquired] qua [their] non-dual Gnosis (advayajnäna) exempted from

ignorance (avïdyâksïna)

So [in fact] they [i.e. the Victors] neither

comprehend anything nor teach anyone anything.

Analogously to (yathä) space(âkâêa) [i.e. being empty]

the Buddha thus (tathä) is firmly established (*pravùé-) in the true nature of things

(dharmatâ) [i.e.emptiness],

119 I
| yid bzin nor bu ci yan ni | |mi 'byedrtog pamednayan|

| |

I20J |

| | |

| | | |

'gro ba'i bsam pa ji bz"in du | tshim par byed pa yin par bead

rdzogs sans thugs kyi rin chen ni ran gi mos bz"in dgons mdzad pas |

'groba'ibyabadedanni| de bein mdzad par go ba yinI

de yi phyir na 'phags (N 280b) pa mams bsam mi khyab pa'i rkyen las 'khruns | yid b£in nor bu'i bya ba ni |
mthon la 'thad pa yod ma yin |


19b rtog : rtogs DC(A)
20a thugs : rgyas P(A)J 20c de dah ni : byed pa la

21a yi : nid NP(DC)(B)


119 I
Albeit [the fabulous wonder-working of] a

Wish-Granting-Gem {cintâmani) in no way [permits] any discerning analysis {fbyed, *ci-)

and rationalization (kip-) yet, in compliance with(yathä)

mundane addictions (jagadâéaya), it is [universally] declared to yield



[Analogously] the Jewel of the Perfect Buddha's [Enlightenment-]Mind


deemed in respect to personal aspirations (svadhimukti) ,

is [in fact] understood to function quite similar to conventional practice (jagatkriyâ),

Therefore, the Noble Ones [Äryäh, Buddhas] are bred from conditions beyond the range

of conception (aointyapratyaya) ', The modus operandi (kriyâ) of a


is beyond the scope of
empirical verification (*anupapatt-C)

[though providing a] spectacular display.


I chos mams (P 292b) dnos med nid la ni | bio gnas sans rgyas yin par bead |
| *ogmingfalyaskhanduni|
| yan dag mnon sum yin par 'dod |


  • |  sans rgyas rtog pa mi mna' ba'i

  • |  gzugs kyi skur ni yan dag 'byun |

  • |  sprul pa'i skus ni sa sten du'an

  • |  yan dag byan chub ston par mdzad


  • |  thub dban rnams kyi sku gsum ste |

  • |  chos dan Ions spyod rdzogs sprul pa |

  • |  mdor bsdus nas ni bead pa *di |

  • |  gus pas bio la bfag par gyis |

    22d yin : mdzad NP(DC)(B)recte saksät kr- ?
    23a rtog : rtogs DC(A), rtag NP(DC)(B); mi mha' ba'i :

    mha'bayiDC(A) 23bskur:skuN(B)#,23cstehdu: stehssuNP(DC)(B)



when the intellect (buddhi) resides{sthâ-)
in the unsubstantiality (abhävatva) of

[any] phenomena (dharmânam);

In reality (yahdag, *tathya, tattvatah), [enlightenment] is maintained

to become manifest (pratyaksa, saksât)
in the divine mansion (vimana) 'of Akanistha.

[There, i.e. Akanistha] a Buddha has become

"truly manifest (sambhuta) in a form-body (rüpakäya) which allows no

conceptualization (*&Zp-); [Besides, a Buddha] also displays {darêayati)

his perfect enlightenment (sambodhi) on[this]earth{*prthïvï) quahis

transformâtion-body {nivmanakaya)

The Principal among the Anchorites (Munïndra)

[is equipped with] three bodies{trikaya):

Absolute[-body] (dharma[kâya]), Felicity[-bpdy] (sambhoga[käy^a]) and

Transformation[-body] (nirmânalkâya]); Kindly treasure devoutly (bhâktyâ) thisepitomized expositionin[your]memoryI

Itisdeclared thatBuddha[-status]
is attained



|27| | | | |

dus gsum du yafi dnos gcig (D 252a) phyir | no bo nid kyis rtag tu (C 263a) 'byun | rga si dag las grol ba nid |
chos rnams kyi ni chos êes bead |

I | | |

snon med pa las slar byun zifi byun nas kyan ni yan dag med ran gi no bo fdzin pas chos | don dam par ni mi brjod do |

| | | |

gan £ig rmi lam sgyu ma dan |
chu zla lta bur bslu byed pa | skye sogs dafi ldan de span bya'i | chos span bar ni rigs ma yin |


25d brjod : rjod P(A)
26b bslu NP(DC)(B): slu NPDC (A); 26c skye NP(DC)(B)

skyes NPDC(A)


[We] repudiate [the existence of] any norm

of existence ultimately (paramärthatah)

[according to its orthodox definition:] because it retains its proper nature

(svabhävagrahanat) ',

[However, any phenomenon undergoes empirically a transformation:] From

previous non-existence (apurvät) [any dharma] reappears (*punarutpad~)

and, again (punar),having existedC*bhutvä)
[it] disappears C*asambhüva) .

[On the other hand] it is [conventionally]

unfounded (nayukta) to reject (*prahä~)

this [composite (samskrta)] norm of existence (dharma) - "subjected to production

(utpâda) etc.

[though ultimately] it is rejectable (prahâtavya), [since] being delusive

(*visamvädaka, *mus~) as a dream (svapna),illusion (maya) or

a moon in the water ([u]dakaoandra).


by staying unique (*ektbhäva, *ekavastu) even throughout the three times

(*kalatraye 'pi,adhvatraye fpi):

the Dharma-knowledge (dharmajnäna) of
any phenomena (dharmânâm)

is defined as the very liberation (vimukti) from old age and death (jarämarana).

[A norm of existence] always (nityam, sada) appears perforce of its_proper nature

(svabhävena, svarüpena)


|29| | | | |


I | | |

zad dan chags bral mya nan 'das 'gog dan ston pa nid z*iba |

de be*in nid kyan chos rnams kyi ran gi no bo de nid bead |

lam gan mya nan 'das 'gro ba | thub pa rnams kyis yan dag gsuns de yi rgyud las skyes gyur pas | des ni mnon sum dag tu gzigs |

| | | |

'phags pafi bden pa rnam pa bzi rtogs te êes nas dad gyur pas | skyes bu gan zag zun brgyad po | mi phyed dge 'dun z"es bead do |

28c kyi P(B), gi N(B), kyis NPDC (A) ; 28d van : gan NP(DC)(B)
30c sun : ya NP(DC)(B)



Elimination (ksaya),dispassion (viräga),

extinction {nirvana) , cessation (nirodha), emptiness(éûnyatâ),

tranquillity (êânta[ta]) and thusness (tathatâ) too are [all] explained

to pinpoint the very Reality (tattva) and proper nature (svabhäva, svarupa) of

all phenomena (dharmânâm)

The path which leads to extinction


has thoroughly been explained by
the Anchorites {Muni) ',

[those candidates who] are bred from the 'series' of him

(*tatsamtänasamudbhava, °-ja-) they [gradually] start to envisage

Reality directly (pratyaksa, säksat)


Comprehending ( [abhi]samaya) the Four kinds (âkâra) of Noble Truths

(oatväry avyasatyani)

[the candidate gradually] becomes endowed withacomprehension-based faith

(avetyaprasâda) ', (astau purusapudgalâh) in [four] pairs

(huh,*yuga) [of two]

are explained to constitute a so-called 'indivisiblecongregation1 (abhedyasamgha).

the eight dignified individuals

I 311
| non mons gzom phyir slob pas na | |ganzagbdun nislobpayin|
| nes pa ma lus zad paf i phyir |
I brgyad pa mi (P 29 3a) slob par bead

| de rnams 'bras bur gnas pa bzi | | bzi ni zugs pa po yin la |
| ston pafi slob ma'i tshogs fdi ni | grol dan grol ba'i lam la gnas |


buddhadharmau tatha samgho marakotiSatair api | bhettum na Sakyate yasmat tasmat samgho 'bhidhiyate

| sans rgyas chos dan dge fdun ni | | bdud rnams bye ba brgya yis kyan | | gan phyir dbye bar mi nus pa |
| de phyir dge 'dun zes bsad do |


The seven [first types] of individuals ipudgala) are [denoted] 'disciples' {êaiksa)

since they [are being] taught i*éiks-) with the aim of eliminating the passions

(kleéanihânaya) ', The eighth (astama) [type i.e. Arhat however] is*denoted 'non-disciple1 {aêaiksa)

since [this saint] has totally eradicated
all defects (aêesadosaksayât)•


These [eight dignified types of individuals (astav äryapudgaläh)] are [respectively

divided into] four candidates

(oatvärah pratipannakah) and four fruit-residents (oatvärah phalasthâh))

This group, the teacher (êastr, i.e. Arhat) and pupils (éisya) i.e. ^rävaka),

are [respectively] liberated (mukta) or residents on the path to liberation

(*[vi]muktimärge sthita) .

I 33]
Since even a [host of a] billion

Mära-devils are incapable of [creating a] schism within

Buddha, his Law and the Community, therefore itiscalled 'Community1.


| thub dban (N 281a) gi ni sku gsum dan | mya nan 'das dan gan zag brgyad |
| sdom brtson bcas la mos pa yis |
| gan fig gsum la skyabs 'gro ba |

| dge bsnen du ni dam bcas pas |
| skyabs ni gsum po bsrun bar bya | | mu stegs kun la gus pa yis |
| mchod dan phyag 'tshal mi bya'o |

| rten gyi dam pa blans nas ni |
| slar yan dman la brten gyur na |
| nes byas phyogs la gnas pa'i phyir | | de ni dam pa'i b2ad gad 'gyur |

34a gi : gis NP(DC)(B)
35a boas pas : 'oha'bas NP(DC)(B); 35d 'tshal: btsal




Whoever seeks the Triple Refuge

(éaranatrayam yati) endowed with zealous devotion (adhimuktya)

towards the three media (trikäya) of the Principal

among the Anchorites (Munindva) , [towards] extinction {nirvana) , the eight

[dignified]personages {pudgala) along with Ascetics(yati)

[He] should [perpetually] safeguard (*rakset)

the Three Refuges after having vowed (pratijnä-) to become a

lay-disciple (upasaka) *, [However,] one should neither pay tribute to

(namaskr-) nor honour (püj-) reverently (bhaktya) all [the non-Buddhist]



If [the candidate], once having embraced (*grhïtvâ) the best (sat) of

supports (âéraya) [Mahäyäna],

[should] again (punar api) resort to the inferior (hina)[vehicle (yäna)]>

[then] this [act of desertion] will [only] make [him] the laughing-stock

(*hasyamyä-)of theBest (*satahj [i.e.Bodhisattva],

because [he] has resorted (sthä-) to a
position (paksa) of misconduct(duskrta).

| gan zig 'phags lam ma skyes pa'i | byis rmons so so'i skye bo dag | | de ni slob dan mi slob pa |
I min zes bstan bcos las bsad do I

| ji ltar 'khor lo la sogs pa | | Her bzun éiri rtar btags pa ni | | ran dan gz"an du rnam dpyad pas | rnam pa kun tu mi dmigs so |


| de bSin phufi po nas brtsams te | | sems can du ni btags pa yan |
| ran dan gSan du rnam dpyad pas | | ci nas kyan ni dmigs mi 'gyur |

38b sin rtar NP(DC)(B): 'khor lor NPDC(A); 38c rah dan NP(DC)(B): yah dag NPDC(A);

39c rah dan ego : yah dag NPDC (AB);rnam dpyadNP(DC) (B) :dpyadbyasNPDC(A)


In the scholastic scripture{éâstra)

it is maintained that those ignorant (*mudha) profane people

((bâta)prthagjana) who have not been bred on the noble path


can neither be called 'disciples nor non-disciples1 (naéaiksaêaiksa).


Just as {yatha)[conventionally {vyavaharatah) ] the conception-designation {prajnapii)

of a cart{ratha)

[only makes sense] in relation to {upâdaya) [its formative constituents {ahga)]

[such as] wheels {cakra) etc.

[yet][the cart] can [actually {tattvatah)] in no way {sarvathâ) be perceived


when being examined {*vicâryamana, vicärana) whether to be identical'or different

[from its constituents],

139 1

Thus {tatha) the conception-designation {prajnapti) of an individual

{sattva) also{api)

[only makes sense] in relation to {upâdaya) [its formative constituents]

the [five] aggregates

{skandha) [yet this individual] is [actually {tattvatah)]

in no way perceived {*yatha nopalabhyate)

when being examined {*vicavyamana, vicärana) whether to be identical or different

[from its constituents],

I40I |

| | |

de 'dir thar pa'i cha nas ni |
brtsams te rtag tu dge ba la |
nan thos nid phyir 'bad na ni |
rim gyis (D 252b) nan thos nid du 'gyur

I421 |

| | |

ran don la gzol 'di dag ni |
snin rje chen po dan bral bas | ran rgyal rgyal ba'i gsun las skyes theg pa chen por mi bsnags so |


(C 26 3b) gan zig ran byufi ye êes 'dod | ran (P 293b) rgyal byan chub don gner bas | rtsom pa de yan ran rgyal gyi |
byan chub kho na nes 'thob bo |

40c nid : 'di DC(A)
41c rtsom pa NP(DC)(B) : rtsol ba NPDC(A) *vyayama ? 41d hes NP(A) : des NP(B)DC(A(B));
42c skyes : skye NP(DC)(B)


In case such [a Hlnayänic candidate] sets out

by perpetually striving ( (pra)yatna)

[to ensure] wholesome merits{kuéala) with the aim of [attaining]

disciple-hood {êrâvakatva) in this life deemed as a share of liberation

(moksabhäga) , [then this candidate] gradually(kramena)

will [secure] status of
a disciple {érâvakatva) .

Any [candidate] desirous {*abhilasin, *is-) of [attaining] the Autogenous*Gnosis


who has set out (*arambha) questing for Enlightenment of the Solitary Buddha

{*pratyekabodhyarthin, *°-prärthanci-),

he, too (api), shall evidently (eva)secure

the Enlightenment of the Solitary Buddha {pratyekabodhi).


These [Solitary Victors], being inclined towards their own objectives


are bereft of Great Compassion

{mahakarunä ,°-krpä)

[wherefore these]SolitaryVictors,
bred from the apothegms of the [perfect]

V i c t o r (jina {pra)vacanaja-) , have not been lauded {praéams-) in. Mahäyäna.

143I I | | |

|44| | | | |

rgyal ba'i yon tan mtha' yas pa | theg pa ehe las gsuns pa dan |
byan chub sems dpa'i mthu thos nas | des ni snod nid fgyur ba yin |

des ni theg pa chen po'i Sin | ma lus ran gi las gyis bsregs | byan chub sems dpa1 nan du ni | skyes bu dbul po lta bur gnas |


labdhva bodhidvayam hy ete bhavâd uttrastamanasah bhavanty ayuhksayat tustah praptanirvanasamjninah

| 'di dag srid pas skrag pa yi |
| yid kyis byan chub gnis thob pa | | tshe zad par ni dgar fgyur fin | | mya nan 'das thob 'du Ses can |

43a pa : pas NP(DC)(B)
44a des NP(AB)(DC(B)) : de CD(A); 44b las gyis PDC(A)

lam gyis NP(DC)(B), gyi N(A)


Having heard (érutvâ) about the might

{prabhava) of a Bodhisattva, the limitless qualities (anantaguna) of the Victors

[as] promulgated (ukta)in the Mahâyâna[-scripture],

[then] this [Hïnayâna-candidate] certainly would become a [fit] recipient_

(*bhäjanatva bhu-).

[But in vain!] This [Hïnayâna-candidate]

has consumed (*dagdha) the [vigorous] Mahäyäna-tree

by all [his] egoistic actions (asesasvakarman) ', Amidst (*antari) Bodhisattvas

[he would certainly] make a poor figure [daridrapurusavat).


Having secured the twofold Enlightenment (bodhidvaya) [resp. of Sravaka

and Pratyekabuddha],

these [Hlnayâna-candidates], whose minds are appalled at existence {bhava) ,

remain content with the expiration of [their] life (äyuhksaya)

imbued with the idea that they have secured^ [themselves] Extinction (nirvana),


na tesäm asti nirvanam kirn tu janma bhavatraye | dhatau na vidyate tesam te 'pi tisthanty anasrave

| de la mya nan 'das yod min |
| 'on kyan srid gsum skye ba ni |
| de dag la yan med mod kyi |
| (N 281b) zag pa med pa'i dbyins na 'khod |

aklistäjnanahinäya pa§cäd buddhaih prabodhitäh | sambhrtya bodhisambhârâms te 'pi syur lokaniyakih

| mi êes non mofis min span phyir |
| phyis ni sans rgyas kyis bskul bas | | byafi chub kyi ni tshogs bsags nas | | de yan 'jig rten 'dren par 'gyur |

| 'khor los sgyur ba rgyal po yi | | mtshan gyis yan dag brgyan pa la | blo dafi ldan yan blon po yis |
| rgyal po lta bur mtho bar mthon |

46bskyeba:skyespaP(A)', 46cmedmodkyi:yod mingyiNP(DC)(B);46d'khod: 'khorN(B)P(A)

47b prabodhitah T *sadgyury legepracoditähexaon- iectuvaT ?

48b gyis : gyi P(A); 48c yah : pa'ah N(B)P(A)


[Butalas]Extinction theydonotpossess

[in reality]; Although [re]birth {janma) in the three

spheres (bhavatraya) theynevertheless sojourninthestate

dees not exist for them,
bereft of impurity (anâsravadhatu).


Subsequently, when awaked/urged by the Buddhas

with the aim to eliminate the nescience bereft of passion-affliction

(aklistâjnâna) they may even become World-Guides(lokanäyaka),

[once] having accumulated the [two] equipments [conducive] to Enlightenment.

I 48|
[The Perfect Buddha being] well adorned

{samalamkrta) with the insignia (laksana)

of a Wheel-revolving King (oakravartin)

is [also] esteemed as highly [by]
the wise {dhï-°, matimat)[Bodhisattva]

as a minister's (amâtya) [esteem] for [his] king.


I50I I

| | |

I | | |

nan thos ran sans rgyas dag gis | rdzogs sans rgyas kyi rigs byuii ba ' i byan chub sems dpa' bio ldan yan | thub pa'i dban po lta bur mthon |

byan chub sems ni legs bskyed pa'i |
sdom brtson mchil lham khur ba la |
byan chub sems sogs la gus pas |
dgra bcom pa yis (P 294a) mchod par bs"ags


êâ ri'i lun las dgra bcom pas | byan chub sems dpa1 phyag byas nid 'di dag dkon mchog gsum g£an min |

sans rgyas khoris su gtogs par fdod

49b rigs : gigs P(A)
50b brtson : bcu ni N(B), mchil : mchis N(B), la :

las P (A) ', 50d mchod par bêags NP(DC)(B) : bzlog par bead NPDC(A);

51a sä : ear NP(DC)(B)Î 51b byas : 'tshal NP(DC)(B)


149 1
[Just so] the disciples and the Solitary

Buddhas, [should] also esteem the wise Bodhisattva,

bred in the family of the Perfect Buddha


as [highly as] the Principal among the Anchorites (Munïndra).


An ascetic (yati),who has successfully generated {*sütpanna) [his]mind

[towards] Enlightenment [bodhioitta], while wearing {*bhr-) [his] sandals

(*upânah) [during his peregrination]

is said to be worthy the respect of a
Saint (Arhat)

inasmuch as [he] respects the mental [resolution] for Enlightenment


In the scripture (agama) of Säri[putra] [it is maintained that]

Arhats [should] pay [their due]
respect (namas krta) to Bodhisattvas;

[By this gesture] these [Arhats] are not at variance (ananya)

with theThreeJewels,

[on the contrary they] are [even] maintained (mata) to be included

(antargata) in the Buddha [category].

| ji ltar dgra bcom zad ye §es\ | sa bdun snon du 'gro ba can |
| de b£in rdzogs sans rgyas ye Ses | sa bcu snon du 'gro ba yin |


| 'dinigcigpumi *groyi|
| sa bcu po ni spyod byed de |
| gan phyir pha rol phyin pa bcus | sa de rnams la rdzogs par byed |

| 'bras bur gnas dan (D 253a) fugs pa ni | | 'phags pa'i lam gyis rab phye ba'i |
| slob pa rnams kyi sa bdun ni |
| (C 264a) mnon pa'i chos las ji skad bead

52b snon : mhon NP(A)
53a yi : yia N(B)P(A); 53b ni : 'diNP(DC)Î de :do

N(B); 53c bous : bcu N(B)J 54a êugs : thugs C(A)



Just as (yatha)[the attainment of]
the Gnosis of extinction (ksayajnana) of an Arhat

is preceded by the ascent {*-pûrvin, -pûrvaka) [through] the seven stages [by a Sràvaka],

thus (tatha)[the attainment of] the Gnosis of the Perfect Buddha

is preceded by the ascent (*-pûrvin, -pûrvaka) [through] ten stages {daêabhumi)

[by a Bodhisattva].

This [Bodhisattva] traverses (*oäraya~)

the ten [progressive] stages (daéabhûmi)

which is not a solitary walk {*ekakin gam-))

Consequently (yasmât, yatah) he brings [all] these [ten] stages to fulfilment

{*up as amp ad-, nispad-) qua the ten perfections {daêaparamitâ) .

just as {yatha) the candidates {pvatipannakah)

and fruit-residents {phalasthâh), [constituting] the seven stages {sapta bhumayah)

of the disciples (éaiksânâm)

[and] distributed (*pra[vi]eïta, prabinna) along the Noble Path (aryamarga) ,

have been explained in Abhidharma,


  • |  de bSin sde snod rgyas pa las |

  • |  sa bcu'i bsnags pa brjod pa yin |

  • |  thams cad 'phags lam bdag nid can

  • |  de bas 'phags min ji ltar 'gyur |

    | nan thos rnams kyi dban mdzad nas | | sde snod gsum du 'dod pa yin |
    | byan chub sems dpa'i gnas skabs kyi | nes pa der ni yod ma yin |

    | 'phags pa nub kyi rir bead dan | | êar gyi ri pafi nan thos kyis | | byan chub sems dpa'i dban byas pa | sde snod bdun du bs"ad pa yin |

    55d bas : las NPDC(A) 57a rir : rih N(B)



Thus (tathä) praise (*praéamsâ) of

of the stages {dasâbhûmi) is expressed in the basket {pitaka) of the

extensive (vaipulya)[sutras];

[As] everything [expressed in these scriptures] is endowed with the nature of

the Noble Path (äryamärgätmaka)

how (katham) then {atah) could [Mahäyäna-sütras bedenoted]



According to {adhikrtya) the Srävakas

three baskets {tripitaka) are maintained
[to exist] *,

[But] in this [Hïnayâna-code] the stage[s]_


ofaBodhisattva isnotfoundtobe
ascertained {*niyata) .

I 57]
The advocates of Apara§aila and the Srävakas of Purvasaila

maintain [theexistenceof]sevenbaskets

(saptapitaka) authorizing (*adhikrta, adhikâra) a Bodhisattva:



  • |  byan chub sems dpa•i sde snod daft |

  • |  de bfin rig 'dzin zes bya dan |

  • |  mdo sde chos mnon 'dul ba dan |

  • |  (N 282a) rgyas dan de bzin skyes pa'i rabs


  • |  de ltar sde snod bdun po ni |

  • |  lun ni gnis las bstan pa yin |

  • |  gal te de ni tshad min fgyur |

  • |  des ni dgra bcom spans pa nid |

    | (P 294b) §es bya mtha1 yas dbafî gis na I 'khor ba na ni skad cig yod |
    | gal ^e re refi dbye bas rin |
    | de bzin 'di yan srid mtshuns 'gyur |

    59cgalte:gahla DC(A) reotcyasya?,de:'di NP(DC)(B), 'gyur:gyurDC(A);

    59d des : de NP(A);
    60a na : ni NP(DC)(B); 60c rih NP(DC)(B): rah NPDC(A)



ThebasketofaBodhisattva aswellas(tathâ)

the so-called [basket of] 'Science-masters'


[the baskets of] Sermons(sütranta), Dogmatism (abhidharma)and

Discipline {vinaya), [the basket of] Extensive (vaipulya) [Sutras]

as well as (tatha) Birth-stories (jätaka).


Such are the seven baskets;

The authoritative tradition (âgama) are taught from both [codes])

If [however] this [Mahâyâna-collection]
is discredited authority (*apramanyam bhu-)

[by Hïnayâna] then certainly (eva)an Arhat would be lost.

160 1
By mastering the limitless(ananta)

[number of] knowable [objects] ijneya) [a Bodhisattva merely] sojourns a moment

(ksana) in the round of rebirths {samsara))

If [existence (bhava) may seem] long (dïrgha) when distinguishing (bhedat) each (ekaika)

[succeeding moment]

then even (apt)this [moment] is tantamount (sama)to an existence (bhava)

[for a Bodhisattva anyway].


bya ba rgya chen byed pa'i phyir srid pa rin snam mi sems so | bsod nams ye êes stobs kyis ni | lus sems sdug bsnal gyis mi non |


  • |  de bas rnam pa thams cad du |

  • |  byan chub sems dpa' smad mi bya |

  • |  khams gsum par gtogs non mons zad

  • |  byan chub kyi snod gyur nid |


  • |  phun po khams dan skye mched rnams |

  • |  gzugs brfian mtshuns par mthon bas na

I nan thos ran sans rgyas dag gis | | ston ni gnis dan gsum po mthon |

61b snam : mnam P(A)
63c gis NP(DC)(B) : ni NPDC(A)


Since [Bodhisattvas] accomplish [their]

vast (udâra) missions(kriya) they never mind the longanimity of life

(bhava) ',

Thanks to the strength (balät)[stemming from their ballast] of Merit(punya) and Gnosis{jnkna)

[they] are unaffected by [mundane] corporeal and mental (kayaoetah) suffering


Consequently, [one] should in no possible

way {sarvathä, sarvakara) deride (*nindet) a Bodhisattva.

[Having] eliminated (ksaya, ksïna) [all] the passions pertaining to the triple world

(*traidhatukapatitakleêa) [this candidate] certainly has become a

[fit] recipient for Enlightenment__ {bodhibhâjanabhütata).

When [they] recognize that [ultimately]

the [five] aggregates(skandha),

the [eighteen] elements (dhâtu) and [twelve] sense-fields (âyatana) are equal (sama)

to reflections {pratibimba), [then] Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas have

envisaged the Second and Third [kind of] Emptiness


| rnam pa kun mkhyen ye §es ni |
| rdzogs sans rgyas kyi yin par bead | rgyal bas lam gyi rnam par êes\
I byan chub sems dpa1 yin par gsuns |

|rabtudga'ba thobpana|
| kun sbyor gsum po legs zad pas | |byanchubsemsdpa1 'phags'gyur2in | rdzogs sans rigs las byun ba yin |


| sa ni gofi ma gon ma la |
| byan chub sems dpa'i yon tan dan | | nes zad gan yin sa bcu pa'i |
I mdo nid las ni êes par bya |

64a rnam pa kun mkhyen : rnam kun mkhyen nid NP(DC *sarvâkarajnata

64c bas : ba'i N(B), par : pa DC(A)



The Omni-modal Gnosis (*sarvakarajnajnana)

is said to belong to the Perfect Buddha ([samyak]sambuddha) ;

The Knowledge of the modes of the Path of theVictor (jinamärgâkarajna-)

isexplainedtobelong to theBodhisattva.


When [a Mahayana-candidatej has attained the'VeryJoyous1 (pramud-ita)

[stage (bhumi)]
and having successfully eliminated (*suksïna)

the three fetters(samyojanatraya)

[he] secures the noble [status of a] Bodhisattva,

[thus]becoming thedescendantofthe family (kula) of the Perfect Buddha

([samyak]sambuddha) .

[Details about the sundry] virtues (guna) of

a Bodhisattva and [how they] have destroyed vices (dosaksaya)

in each of the consequtively higher stages

(*uttarottaram bhumim) may be known from the very Daêabhïtmika-sûtra itself.

I yon tan dam pa re re zin |
| mtha' yas de ni mkha' dan mnam |

| |

ies| |

| | |

byan chub la sems rtag phyag 'tshal |
(D 253b) bio ldan byan chub la skyabs mchi


(C 264b) theg chen tshul la brten nas ni skyabs gsum rnam par phye ba las |
bsod nams gan des 'jig rten rnams | dkon mchog gsum la gzol bar sog |

| gsum la skyabs su 'gro ba bdun cu pa |
| slob dpon zla ba grags pa'i zal sna nas mdzad pa

rdzogs ||

67b mtha1 : bsam N(B)J 67c la sems rtag : sems rtag la NP(DC)(B);

68a tshul : chul P(A); 68c 'jigrten : skye bo NP(DC)(B) 68d gzol bar êog NP(DC)(B) : mchog gzol sog NPDC(A)


A wise {dhimat) [Bodhisattva] seeks refuge

[aiming] at Enlightenment{bodhi)

[by] perpetually revering his mental [resolution] for Enlightenment


[ofwhich]eachseparate superiorvirtue

(*paramaguna) [in total number] is endless(ananta)_

like space(akâéavat).


May mankind (jagat) apply [its] highest devotion {*paräyanam bhüyät)

towards the Three Jewels

perforce {tena) of the merit {yat punyam) [secured by me]

qua [this][analytic] discussion (viveoanät) of the Triple Refuge {triêarana)

based upon the principle (naya) of Mahâyina Î

The Septuagint on the Three Refuges [hereby] ends, indited byäcaryaCandraklrti.





Upasaka:lay-devotee,videAKBhâ214-18ad IV
30-1 (LVP tr. tome 4 p. 69ff.), Abhisamayalam- kâralokâby Haribhadra (ed. Wogihara) p. 331, Lamotte, E: Histoiredu bouddhisme indien,Lou- vain 1967, pp. 71-92, La Vallée Poussin, L. de: LesfidèleslaiesouUpâsaka, Belgique, Bulletin, 1925, pp. 15-34. Sarana, cf. AKBhâ ad
IV 32: kah punah éaranârthah ? tranârthah êara- nârthah*tadäsrayena sarvaduhkhätyanta?iirmoksät Saranatraya - ratnatraya, vide AKBhâ ibid,

Astasamvara of an upasaka,v. AKBhâ 205-6 ad IV 14-15, these eight obligations = astâhgaêïla i.e. the eight-membered morality, AK IV 29, Na- gârjuna's Suhrllekha v. 10-11.

The stanzas 2-6 evidently provide a paronomas- tic example (yamaka, êlesa)or double entendre as regards the etymological implications of the word buddha.The parallel semantics of budh- into a concrete (wake up - unfold) and an ab- stract (enlighten - blossom) connotation may also be compared with its counterverb svap-

(sleep-close),cf.alsoSimonsson,N: Indo- tibetische Studien,Uppsala 1957, p. 265-6. Traikâlya- samsara v. Nagarjuna's RÄ I 36;

On the concept tryadhvavimukti, cf. DBhS I, Q. Here jneya - jneyâvarana, cf. also DBhS X, A: bodhisattva....apramänajneyavicäritayä buddhyä.

For anavaragrabhava, cf. MMK XI led (+ Candra- kïrti's PP 218.4f.). In Mahâyâna dogmatism we even encounter an anavaragraêunyata, cf. PV 196 19-21, SS 1419.11-14 and MABhS 313.15ff, ad MA 194-95 (Tauscher tr. p. 76 and notes). 3bcd is citedinBhavya'sMadhyamakaratnapradïpa TTP. ed. 327b2-3.


  1. |4|  On hes 'byuh>*nairyanika: factors conducive to emancipation, MABhâ" 318.13ff. ad VI 208; AK ad VII 13.

  2. |5|  Cf. Lamotte, Traité126-144.

  3. |6|  Traité^ ibid. Cf. also Aointyastava 41: tat tattvamparamàrthorpi tathatädravyamisyate \ bhutam tad avisamvadi tadbhodhâd buddha ucyate ||(ed.Lindtner,Nagarcunianap.154).

  4. |7|  The stanzas 7-10 describe Buddha's kayadvaya, here reflecting the key-stanzas of RÂ III 12-13 in particular. For the laksanaand anuvyanjana> cf. Mahavyutpatti § XVII 235-267 and XVIII 268- 349, RÂ II 77-100. Buddha's kayadvaya,cf. infra note 23-24.

|8| For punyasambhara, cf. MABhâ 62.5-64.4 ad III 12e.g.: delabsodnamskyitshogsnipharot tu phyin pa gsum po de dag nid yin (i.e.dâna-0 êïla-0 and ksantipâramita) la... \\ de la bsod nams kyï tshogsgah yin pa de ni rdzogs pa'i sans rgyas boom Idan 'das kyi gzugs kyi sku bsodnamsbrgyari mtshannidcanrmaddu byuh zih bsam gyis mi khyab pari gzugs sna tshogs dan Idan pafi rgyu yin no \\ Cf. also 359.2ff.

|9| Allusion to sambhogakâya. A wordplay between sambhoga/sambodha. This stanza is cited in Bu- stonfs famous chos fbyuh (éd. éPS, tr. Ober- miller 1, p. 130). For jinaputra- bodhisattva vide MABha 4.12ff. For anuttarabodhi cf. infra TSS 22.


1101 For jnanasambhara, cf. MABhä 62.5-64.4, e.g. : yeéeskyitshogsnibsamgtandan êes rabpo (i. e. dhyâna-0 and prajnapäramitä)|| brtson

'grusni gnis kari (i ,e.punya-0 and jnänasam- bhara)rgyuyinnozesbyabarrnamparbzaggo

| For dharmakâya MABha ibid. chos kyi bdag nidcangyi sku skyebamedpa'i mtshannid can gyi rgyu ni ye ses kyi tshogs yin no \ Cf. also 361.9ff. For the two predicates ofdharma- kayay i.e. nisprapancajnäna and jneyänutpadaja- cf. MMK XVIII and XXV 24 + PP 538ff.

|11| The astädaeävenika{buddha)dharmahj catväri vai- êavadyani and daêabalâni of Tathägata are to
be pursued (anugata) for acquisition {adhyälam- bana) by a Bodhisattva-candidate from the 4th bhumithroughthe9thbhumiandareto becom- pletely attained {samudägama) on the 10th bhu- mij cf. DBhS X.A. These buddhagunäni are dis- cussed in detail in Traité 1505-1707, and MABhä 321.5-337.3 VI 210-213 (tr. Tauscher p. 82

ff.) lib: khyadpar fphagspa3 *viéista cor- rupt for vaisaradya ?

|12| The stanzas 12-13 are identical with MMK XV 1-
2 [sic].For hetupratyaya, cf. MMK I, Yukti- sastika 19) krtaka= samskrta> krtrima. Nagär- juna's Acintyastava 6: hetupratyayasambhütä yathaitekrtakâhsmrtâh \ tadvatpratyayam vie- vam tvayoktam natha sâmvrtam \ \

|13| Cf. Acintyastava 44: hetupratyayasambhütä para- tanträ ca samvrtih | paratantraiti proktah paramarthas tv akrtrimah \ \ Thus akrtrima is glossed with svabhava, prakrti>tattva,dravya and vastu ibid. 45, in fact all paryäyäh of


paramartha. On svabhavavide esp. MMK XV, MABha ad VI 218-222.

|14| Cf. especially Aointyastava 7: asty etat krta- kamsarvamyatkimoidbälalapanam\ riktamusti- pratïkaêamayathârthaprakaêitam||, ibid. 15: svata eva hi yo nctsti bhävah sarvo 'sti kas tadâ| paraitiuoyateyo 'yamnavinâ svasva- bhâvatah \\ sarva and viéva are discussed in Nagarjuniana p. 143 n. 7. For the instantaneous attainment of omniscience cf. MABhi 356.3-6:der

(i.e. Akanistha,cf. TSS 22) mhon par rdzogs par satis rgyas pa na boom Idan 'das kyis skad oig skad oig kho na la thams oad mkhyen pa ye êes brnes so zes bya bas cf. also TSS 64infra.

|15| Cf. Sünyatäsaptati vv. 58-68 for the causal re- lationship between viparyasa - vikalpa-kleéa i.e. the cyclic interplay of which represents the true samsärahetu(ed. Nagarjuniana, p. 61- 63 + notes), especially v. 64: | rgyu rkyen las skyesdhospornams\\yahdagnid du rtogpa gah||denistonpasmariggsuhs|| delas yan lag bou gnis fbyuh |., Yuktisastikä 3: | ji Itarbyispasrnambrtagsbzin\\dhos po gal te bden gyur na \\ de dhos med pas rnam thardu

||gahgismifdodrgyucizig\9ibid.57: | logpa'iêespasmhongduhbari\\ non mohs skyon rnams gah yin te \ \ dhos dan dhos med

rnam rtog pa \ \ don êes 'gyur la mi fbyuh no \

1161For aklistâvidyacf.infraTSS46-7andnotes. The omnimodal insight cf. TSS 64. For the term bodhidvaya cf. TSS 45: sopadhiêesa-0 and nir- upadhiêesanirvâna* the bodhiof Srävakas and


Pratyekabuddhas are maintained to be inferior to the Mahäyäna anuttara (sam)bodhi. For bodhi = nirvana= asamskrta = abhava (^ *avastu) cf. MABhâ ad VI 218-222, however cf. also Sunyata- saptati 25, and RÄ I 42.

|17| For imebhavâh= imedharmahjsarvedharmäh or sarvam asti. In Mahayâna treatises generally indicating the skandha,ayatanaand dhâtu, cf. also note 14 supra.Candrakïrti defines bhâva in the following way, MA ad VI 218ff., e.g. VI 219: | dhos pofi sgra ni mdor bsdus na \ \ phuh polharnamsbrjodpayin\\dernams de yis stohnid gah \\dedhosstohpaniddubead \ i.e. dhos po âes bya ba ni phuh po lha1'o \ As such these panca skandhâhare according to MMK XXVI8glossedwithbhavaormundane existence in general. For *jneyanutpanna = jneyänupa-

labha vide cf. PP 538ff. ad MMK XXV 24, Yukti- sastikav, 1 and Aointyastava vv. 37-9. This is preciselythedefinitionofadvayajnana, the core of Madhyamika epistemology: the objectless cognition, cf. e.g. PP 556, Nägärjuna's Nir- aupamyastava vv. 3-4. Whereas TSS 15-16 ex- press the hinabodhi of Srävakas and Pratyeka- buddhas TSS 17 actually indicates the non- plus-ultra enlightenment {anuttara(samyak)sam- bodhi)of MahSyina. For further reference cf. e.g. previous note, Bodhicittavivarana v. 83, ed. in Nagarjuniana p. 208-9.

|18| Cf. MMK 24: sarvopalambhopaéamah prapanoopa- éamah êivah \ na kva cit kasya oit kaê oid dharmobuddhenadeéitah\\Cf.also MMKXVIII 7-10 and PP, Niraupamyastava 3: na boddhâ na oa


boddhavyam astïhaparamärthatah \aho parama- durbodhâmdharmatambuddhavän asi \ \

|19| Cintâmani or ointaratna^ stock metonym (rüpa- ka) for bodhicitta. The fabulous gem supposed- ly believed to yield all desiderata, cf. the employment of cintamani and kalpavrksa in rela- tion to dharmakâya* MABhâ ad X 9 (362.9ff). As expressed by Candraklrti dharmakaya3 though beyond the scope of rationalization (rnam par
mi rtog pa {nid)),yet is the very cause which secures (all) wishes ad libitum {ji Itar mfion par fdod pari don 'grubpari rgyu nid3 *yatha- bhilasärthasiddhahetutva), the very qualifica- tions designating cintâmani. Cf. here also Santadeva's Bodhi (sattva)caryâvatara IX 35: ointamanikalpatatur yathecchâparipuranah \ vi- neyapranidhânabhyam jinabimbam tatheksyate ||

|20| Jagat = loka, vyavahara, cf. e.g. MMK XXIV 8- 10,êûnyatâsaptati69.Astobodhicitta, the key term in Mahayâna which together with the terms karunâ and advayabuddhi ( °-jnâna), con- stitute thehetuofajinaputra* bodhisattva^ cf. MABhâ 6.8 ff., and also RÄ II 75 and e.g. Bodhicittavivaranavv. 106-112.

|21| Compare RÄ IV 84: kham iväointyapunyatväd (i.e. gunatvädex oonieot.T) ukto 'ointyaguno jinah

| mahäyaneyatobuddhamähätmyam ksayatâmidam

|22| As to Akanisthacf. Lanka (ed. Nanjio)p. 269.4: akanisthabhavane divyesarvapâpavivarjite tatra budhyantisambuddhä nirmitastv iha budhyate \.


and 361.5 (v. 774): kamadhatau tatha 'rupye tv iha buddho vibudhyate \ rüpadhatv akanisthesu vïtaragesu budhyate || Cf. also MABhi 356.3-6 cited supra note 14, where the sarväkärajnata- jnânaisattainedinstantaneously.This omni- modal gnosis is in fact characterized by being immanent (pratyaksalaksana) vide MA VI 214 (cf. Tauscher tr. p. 99). Cf. also Atiéa's Satya- dvayavatära(ed. Lindtner, JIP 9, p.191 and 195) v. 24.

|23| As indicated in Lahka Buddha attains enlighten- ment in Akanistha having assumed a rûpakâya (^ sambhogakäya). In his transformed (nirmita, nir- maya) garb, however, he displays his sambodhiin this loka solely for the sake of vaineyas. De- tails about rüpa-0 and dhavmakâya are presented MABhi 359.Iff. On rtog pa mi mha' ba> *nirvi- kalpaka)cf. MABhi 367.17-369.1.

|24| As to trikäyaor kayatvaya, a relatively late amplification of kâyadvaya cf. e.g. the Kâya- trayastotra, perhaps spuriously ascribed to Nâ- gärjuna (cf. Nagarjuniana> p. 16 n. 35 for ref.)

|25|Cf.MMKXIII3-6;Onsvabhäva {°-rüpa)grahanât, the definition of dharma,cf. PP 457.1: sva- laksanan....dharmâh. For the ultimate inadmissi- bility of svabhâva,cf. e.g. MMK XV and XXIV 16 -38.

|26| On the trilaksana of samskrta: utpâda^ sthiti and bhahga cf. MMK VII. Again, a shift in the satya-level is implied in the argumentation. For the ultimate delusiveness of the world, cf. MMK XIII. On the last hemistich, cf. the citation of


Dhyäyitamustisutra in PP 516.5ff. especially 517.16-518.1: yena manjuêrtrevam oatvâri ärya- satyänidrstâni,sa na kalpayati na vikalpayati

ime dharmâh kuéalâhjime dharmâh akuéalâhj imedharmâhprahätavyäh,imedharmâh säksät- kartavyähj duhkhamparijnatavyarrijsamudayah prahâtavyah, nirodhahsâksatkartavyahy margo bhävayitavyah iti \ tat kasya hetoh ? tatha hi sa tam dharmam na samanupaéyati nopalabhate yah parikalpyeta\ bâlaprthagjânas tv etân dharmân kalpayanto rajyantioa dvisyantioa muhyanti oa

| sa na kamoid dharmam äyühati nirvyühati \ tasyaivam na äyühato 'niryühatastraidhâtuke oittamnasajjâti\ajatam sarvatraidhatukam samanupaéyati mayopamamsvapnopamam prati- érutkopamam\ \ and from Âryavajvamandâdha'ran'ï :

{ibid.50.6-53.2, esp. 52.12-53.2) vitatha ime sarvadharmâh\asantaimesarvadharmäh\ vi- thapitäime sarvadharmäh \mâyopamâime sarva- dharmâh|svapnopamäimesarvadharmäh\ nir- mitopamäimesarvadharmäh \udakaoandropamä ime sarvadharmäh \itivistarah \

|27| Cf. e.g. RÄ I 66ff. and MMK XIII 3-6 for a cri- tiqueofthepositionofHlnaylna,quite pro- bablySarvlstiväda.Astodharmajnana, know- ledge of Dharma: it hardly tallies with the definition in AK VI 26 and VII 2, a key term
in the soteriological course (mârga) of the Sarvästiväda, cf. the resume of the mârga in
PP 478.4ff. (tr. May p. 210ff. + notes). Nor does it appear to tally with the definition in another of Candrakîrtifs expositions,the Panca- skandhaprakarana § 38.1. The relation between dharmajnäna and dharmajnänaksänti is discussed


in AK VI 28,49 andVII 1.Cf. also PP 377.11-378.1: etaddharmatattvämrtapratipannänäm éravakânâm érutacintâbhâvanakramâtpravarta- mânânâm ê'ïlasamadhiprajnâtmakaskandhatrayâmrta- rasasya upayogan {lege °-bhogân) niyatam eva jarâmaranaksayasvabhâvanirvânâdhigamo bhavati \

|28| The Madhymika position. The enumeration of syn- onyms of paramärthais e.g. found in Aoin- tyastava vv. 37-44, q.v. for details. Cf. also thecitationfromRatnakûtasûtrainPP 47.1- 50.3.

|29| For a convenient aperçu of the soteriological path of HïnaySna, cf. AK VI and PP 478ff. From the very moment the candidate (i.e. a stream- winner, érotapannah) enters the darêanamarga,

drsti-0 he commences to envisage the
of the Four Noble Truths. Samtana , i.e.
tinuum or stream of consciousness is
modo tantamount to lineage {gotra, vamêa or kula).

|30|TheVaibhâsikasrecognizeavarietyof märgas intheirconceptionofman'sprogressand de- velopment, whether it is conceived, relative to ontology, as a laukikamargaor a lokottara-

niarga, whether it is conceived, relative to progress, as a darêanamârga or bhâvanâmârga and these again may be conceived, relative to ethics, as a prahânamârga. These distinct and supplementary paths may in turn be subsumed, relative to soteriology, under êaiksamârga (the first seven bhumis)and aêaiksamârga (the eighth bhümi (Arhatship)). Besides we encounter

nature con-



prayoga-0,anantarya-0,vimukti-0and viêesa- màvga (cf. AK VI passim). The acquisition or comprehension (abhisamaya) of the oatvâri ârya- satyânicomprises sixteen {sodaéa) moments

(ksana) applied to the sixteen aspects {âkara) of the Four Truths, each avyasatya being four- fold. As to the (four sorts of) avetyaprâsada cf. AK VI 73b-74 + com. and PP 487.5-9 (May tr. p. 219 note 744). Samvrtitah, the Four Truths and the overall Hïnayâna conception of märga are not repudiated by Mâdhyamika, though the Mahäyäna course naturally is preferred (cf. e. g. RÂ V 40ff.), paramärthatah, nevertheless the soteriological foundation and process are rendered unreal due to the inadmissibility of svabhava,cf. MMK XXIII 24, XVIV. For the rela- tion between âryasatyâni and the satyadvaya, where the first, second and the fourth apper- tain to samvrtisatya whereas the third adheres to paramârthasatya, cf. MABhâ 70.Iff. and esp. 71.3-5: | de la sdug bshal dah kun fbyuh dan

lam gyi bden pa ni kun rdzob kyi bden pa'i khohssugtogsso\\'gogpafibdenpani don dam pari bden pafi ran gi ho bofo \
The traditional classification of astäv ârya- pudgalâhor (mahâ)puruêapudgalah consists of four pairs (yuga) each made up by a candidate

(pratipannakah) and a fruit-resident {phala- sthah) , cf. e.g. PP 486.7-8: ete catvärah pratipannakah pudgalâhoatvaraêca phalasthah ityete 'staumahapuruêapudgalâlh samghoom. skt,]bhavanti\pavamadaksinârhâ ukta bhaga- vatâ | and ägama ibid. 487.3-4: pratipannakâé catvâraécatvâraéca phalasthitäh \ esa samgho daksiniyovidyâoaranasampadâ \\ iti.


5 .Anagami-pratipannakah 6.Anâgami-phalasthah
7 .Arhat-pratipannakah

8 .Arhat-phalasthah [Arhattva]



Thisclassificationmay graphically berepro duced accordingly:



3.Sakrdägämi-pratipannakah IS^ 4.Sakrdâgâmi-phalasthah

For abhedyasamgha, cf. AKBhâ 216.17-19 ad AK IV 32: yah samghamêavanamgaoohati, êaiksâêaiksân

asau samghakarakân dharmângaoohati; lâbhenastau pudgalâh samghïbhavanti9 tvât.For the last hemistich cf. also skandhaprakarana p. 134.9.




|31| Cf. the previous note and esp. the passage in AKBhä 369.5-17 ad AK VI 45ab: ksayajriänam utpadyate\Vajropamasamâdher anantaram paêoimo vimuktimârgah |ataevatatksayajnânamsarvâ- sravaksayaprâpti sahajatvât prathamatah\ a- êaikso 'rhann asau tada | [45b] utpanne aa punah ksayajnane so 'rhattvapratipannakah a- êaiksobhavatyarhamêoaarhattvaphalaprâptah \ phalântavam prati punah êiksztavyâbhavâd a- êaiksah\ata eva sa parârthakaranârthatvât sarvasarâgapûjârhattvâc cârhann iti siddham bhavati \ anye sapta pûrvoktâhpudgalah êaiksâ iti | kena te éaiksâh ? âsravaksayaya nityam êiksanaéïlatvâo ohiksâtraye \ etc. Thus dosa = âsraya= kleêa.For this verse cf. also the Panoaskandhaprakarana p. 134.8.

|32| Cf. note 30-1 and esp. AKBhi ad VI 48, 59, 75-6.

|331 This verse is cited by Haribhadra in his Abhi- 8amayâlamkârâlokâ Prajnâpâramitâvyâkhyâ (ed. Wogihara) p. 8-9 and partially in Panoaskandha- prakaranap. 134.10. Cf. also PP 487.6-9: ataê
aa samgho nästi \ tatra adhigamadharrnena pvaty- aksadharmatayâ sarvamârair api buddhe bhagavati abhedyatvâd avetyaprasâdalâbhena samghah*sana syat I na cet santi te 'stau purusapudgalâh \\

  1. |34|  Cf. note 1 and RÂ III 36.

  2. |35|  Cf. note 1. For a parallel stanza providing the he tu for abstaining from revering Tïrthikas cf. RÂ III 37| mu stegs gzan la gus pa yis \\ mohod dah phyag kyah mi bgyi ste \ \ mi êes pa rnams de'i vkyen gyis \\ skyon dah boas la ohags gda'l


|36| Cf. Bodhisambhara[ka](ed. in Nagarjuniana) v. 135. For sat = vicaksana= dhimat - bodhisattva cf. ibid. p. 105. For *duskrtapaksasthitatvât, cf. the elucidative passage in AKBhâ 211.8-11 ad AK IV 24cd: ko 'yarn asamvaronäma ? asam- varo duéearitam dauhêïlamkarma tatpathah \ \ [24cd] | sadbhih kutsitatvâd anistaphala- tvâd duêoavitam| Thus this misconduct {due- oaritajduskrta),being a kind of asamvara, is reprehensible by the wise persons, or, in the phrasing of Candrakirti, considered to be an object of scorn (*hâsyah [as-]^ giad gad m.c. for gzad gad du bya ba[r 'ospa] cf. also MABhi 36.6, 106.15-6 and PP 220.14).

|37| Cf. note 30 and esp. AKBhi ad II 40bc defining prthagjana:margasyâprâptirisyate\ prthag- janatvam[40bc]'prthagjanatvam katamat? âvya- dharmanarn alabhah*iti éâstrapâthah | etc. cf. also I 40, 41a, II 9b-d, III 41cd. Inasmuch as theÂryâharerespectivelyêaiksa (=Srâvaka) and aêaiksa (= Arhat), a prthagjana is defined as naéaiksâéaiksa (cf. e.g. AKBhâ ad VI 45b) residing on a naivaêaiksânâéaiksï bhümi.

I 381 The usage of a metaphorical (upâdâya) designa- tion (prajnapti), a key term in Mâdhyamika, is in fact the only affirmative means capable of representing a conventional object cf.e.g. MMK XXII11,XXIV18andMayp.161n.494 forref. Recently dealt with in detail by Williams, P.M. in JIP VIII pp. 1-46. It is especially employed in order to describe the pudgalanaivatmya (cf. next note) illustrated by the drstânta of a cart (ratha) and its formative constituents

(ahga) cf. MABhä 271.15-279.1 ad VI 151-9, PP


346.2, 350.14.

1391 Cf. the previous note and the detailed exposi- tion in MABhi 233.13-301.8 ad VI 120-178 (cf. tr. Tauscher). Sattva=ätman.

|40| For moksabhäga opp. to samsârabhâga quite pro- bably, cf. AKBhä ad IV 125cd.

1411 Pratyekabuddha, cf. AKBhi 183.6-22 ad III 94-
cd: 2 types (dvùvidhâ) vargacârin and khadga- visanakalpa. Pratyekabuddhas, being denoted me- diocre Buddhas, are hïna to the anuttarasamyak- sambuddhas, inasmuch as they lack punya-0 and jnanasambhara, mahäkarunaand sarvakârajnata" as stated MABha 4.1-10.

|42| Cf. previous note. For mahakarunâ, cf. AKBhâ ad VII 33, Traité III pp. 1705-17. As to the (Sri- vakas and) Pratyekabuddhas being bred from the Lord of the Saints {munïndra) and his ipsissima verba (*jina(pra)vaeanaja-) cf. MABhâ ad I lab, I 8ab and VI 225cd.

|43| Cf. e.g. RÄ IV 84 note 21 supra,and MABhi 350. 18ff.Abhâjanatvafor anuttarasamyaksambodhi of Mahiyina. However, cf. also Bodhisambhära- [ka]v. 13.

|44| Cf. e.g. RÂ IV 67-98 and esp. v. 70 echoes the same idea: yat svârthanirapeksatvât parârtha- ikarasapriyam |gunâkarammahâyânam taddvesi tena dahyate \ \

|45| T£S 45-47 are cited by Haribhadra in his Abhi-


samayâlamkaraloka Prajnaparamitâvyakhya (ed. Wogihara) p. 134, cf. also the discussion in Ruegg, La Théoriedu Tathâgatagarbha et du Gotra,Publ. de ]'Ècol. Fran. d'Extr.-Orient -
vol. LXX pp. 194-211, in which these citations erringly are maintained to hail from Bodhi- aittavivarana(cf.infra),atleast according
to parts of Tibetan philosophical writings. Haribhadra's elucidative exposition in his A-
loka is worth quoting: AAA 2.1 (p. 133) Maha- êrâvakastu sopadhinirupadhisamjnakambodhi- dvayamlabdhvâ bhavâd urukarunâprajnâvai- kalyenottrastamânasâh purv'âvedha'ksiptayuhsam- skârapariksayan nirvanasambhave fpi pradïpa- nirvanaprakhyanirvânasamjnino vyativrttatrai- dhâtukajanmânaê cyuticittânantaram pariéuddhesu buddhaksetresu anâsravedhâtau samâhitâ eva padmaputesu jâyante \ tatas te'mitabhâdisam- buddhabhaskarakarair aklistamohanaye prabodhitâ bodhicittam utpâdyamuktyavasthâyâmnarakâdi- oârikâmiva gatim gaechantah kramenabodhisam- bharamsambhrtyalokaguravo bhavanttti âgaman niêoitamiti \For bodhidvaya cf. note 16supra

and for âyuh = ayuhsamskara, a dharma (=jivi- tendra)of the cittaviprayuktatype, cf. AKBhâ ad II43a.

|46| Cf. previous note. Anäsrava-dhätu cf. Ruegg, idem.p. 181 sq., and p. 194 n.3 for theLahka- quotation, which might have influenced Candra- kïrti.

I 47I Cf. note 45. For aklistajnana or v °-mohaJ cf. Ruegg, idem.p. 182 sq. and LVP in Siddha p. 567 sq. The reading of Haribhadra in


the first hemistich of prabodhitâh(which, in- cidentally, would demand a Tibetan rendition into *sad gyur) might probably be a lectio faoiliov procured due to haplography (i.e. the adjacent buddha). In the light of the Ti- betanbskulbas the conjecture praooditah seems warranted, especially when compared with Nägärjuna's Bodhicittavivarana w. 95-6 ex- pressing a similar idea: | ji srid sahs rgyas kyismabskul\\desridyeSeslusdhoscan\

| tin 'dzin myos pas rgyal gyur ba \ \ nan thos de dag gnas par 'gyur \ \ bskul na sna tshogs gzugs kyis ni \ \ sems can don la chags gyur cih || bsod nams ye êes tshogs bsags nas

| | sans rgyas byah ohub thob par ''gyur | This passagemight havebeen thesourceofinspi- ration together with Lanka etc. for Candra- kïrti. Evidently it accounts partially for the confusion prevailing in the Tibetan com- mentatorial literature, cf. n. 45.

|48| Bodhisattvas, bred in the family {kula, gotra, vaméa)of Tathigata - the Dharmarâja endow-
ed with the rajalaksanasj perpetually revere and honour the Perfect Buddhas. Though not directly echoing this picture the following passage from DBhS (also cited MABhi 19.2 - 17) may be quoted, 7.J 17-21: tad yathäpi nama bhavantojinaputrârâjakulaprasûtorâjaputro râjalaksanasamanvâgato jâtamâtra eva sarvâmâ- tyaganamabhibhavati räjädhipatyenana punah svabuddhivioârena \yadâpunahsa samvrddho bhavati tadäsvabuddhibalädhänatah sarvâmâ- tyakviyâsamatikranto bhavati \

|49| Analogously, the Srâvakas and Pratyekabuddhas,


who are surpassed (atikranta)by the Bodhisat- tvas, themselves bred from the Perfect Buddhas (cf. MABhä 16.1 ff. RÄ V 41), should conse- quently pay the Bodhisattvas due respect from

the seventh stage {durahgamà bhûmi)and hence- forth, cf. DBhS 7.J 21-5: evam eva bho jinapu- trccbodhisa[t]tvahsaha cittotpâdenasarva- érâvakapratyekabuddhân abhibhavaty adhyâêaya- mâhâtmyenana punah svabuddhivicarena | asyarn tu saptamyäm bodhisa[t]tvabhümau sthito bodhi- sa[t]tvah svavisayajnânaviéefamâhâtmyâvasthita- tvât sarvaêrâvakapratyekabuddhakriyam ati- kranto bhavati \ \

|SO| Highly tentative translation.

1511 Sari[putra]âgama: ? Dharmaskandha[pâdaéâstra] - one of the six feet (satpäda) constituting the Abhidharma of the Sarvâstivâda, cf. Lamotte, Histoire,p. 203 sqq. and LVP's introduction to histfoéa-translationpp. XXVIII-XLI and LX-LXI-

Ij On Säriputra in general cf. Migot, A.: Un grandediscipledu Buddha,Sariputra, BEFEO XLVI, 1954 pp. 405-554.

|52|Thisstanza echoesRÄV40:yathâérâvakayâne fstavuktâhéravakabhûmayah \mahayane daêa

tatha bodhisattvasya bhûmayah\\Fortheastau bhumayahof the aryapudgalas cf. supra and e.g. SamyuttaV p. 202. The daéabhûmayah of a Bodhi- sattva vide, above all, Har Dayal: The Bodhi- sattvadoctrine in BuddhistSanskrit Litera- ture, London 1932 passim, Traité pp. 2372-2445, Suramgamasamadhisutra (tr. Lamotte, Bruxelles 1965) pp. 155-58, RÂ V 41-61. For their mutual relationship cf. Suramgamasamadhisutra pp. 246-


51. For ksayajnana of an Arhat, cf. AK ad II 44b, VI 44-5, 56-60. Sambuddhajnâna is to be glossed with sarvâkârajnajnâna v. supra n. 22 and infra n. 64, cf. also MABhä 13.6-12 and 341.9-342.10 ad VI 224-5.

|53| Cf. previous note.

|54| Cf. note 30-2.

|55| Vaipulya is one of the ahga of buddhavacana or dharmapravacana constituting the formal crite- ria of agama. In the Pali tradition a nine-mem- bered {ahgavasena navavidham) classification is found, whereas a later tradition counts a so- called twelve-membered (dvâdaéa) division, cf. Lamotte, Histoirepp. 160-2. Vaipulya-pitaka in general refers to the grand and extensive Mahi- yäna-sütras.

|56| For tripitaka, cf. Lamotte, ibid. pp. 163-210. For niyata (^ niyâma^niyama) cf. AK VI ad 26

(LVP tr. tome IV p. 180) a determination dis- tinctly characterizing a Bodhisattva from the candidates of the lesser vehicles, cf. Lamotte ibid. p. 693, RÂ IV 66, V 80.

|57|ForAparaêailasandPûrvaêailascf. Lamotte, ibid.pp. 316, 575-606 and Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, q.v.

|58|Forbodhisattva-pitakacf.Lamotte,tr. Vi- malakïrtinirdeêa (sutra) p. 378 n. 18. For vid- yadhara 'Upholder of (a magical) science1 i.e. magical spells etc., cf. also MMK XXIV 11 and


Bodhi {sattva)oaryavatara V 16. On vidyâdhara- pitaka, cf. LVP in JRAS, 1895, pp. 433-6.

|59| Tentative translation, however compare RÂ IV

91: adhisthânâni noktanibodhisattvasya bodhaye |buddhairanyatpramànamoako'sminn arthe

jinadhikah \\

|60| Cf. RÄ III 17-21.

|61j Cf. RÂ III 21-27, esp. 21-22: | bsod nams mtha' yas zes bya dah \\ ye êes mtha1 yas zes byades

|| lus dah sems kyi sdug bshal dag \ \ myur ba nidduselbarbyed||sdigpasnanfgror lus gyi ni \ \ sdug bshal bkres skom la sogs fbyuh\

| des sdig ma byas bsod nams kyis \| srid pa gzan na de med do \ and 25-26: | sdug bshal ba la yun thuh yah \\ bzod dkar yun rih smos ci dgos||sdugbshalmedoihbdebala\\ mtha1

yas dus kyah ji zig gnod \\ de la lus kyi sdug bshalmed \\yidkyisdugbshalgala yod \\ denisnihrjes'jigvtensdug\\denid kyis ni yun rih gnas\

|62| Candraklrti is here evidently influenced by RÄ IV 67-100.

|63|Cf.Yuktisastikâvv.33-34:mamety aham iti proktam yathâ karyavaéâj jinah \ tatha kärya- vasât proktâh skandhäyatanadhatayah \ \ mahä- bhutadivijnaneproktamsamavarudhyate \ taj- jnâne vigamamyätinanumithyâvikalpitam \\ The Second and Third kind of éûnyatâ ? However,

on the different forms {prabheda^ rab tu dbye ba) of sunyata,cf. MABhâ 301.9-340.13 ad VI


179ab-223cd (tr. Tauscher p. 65ff.) and Traité 2028ff.

  1. |64|  The omni-modal Gnosis {sarvâkârajnajnâna) of the Perfect Buddha or Tathâgata (cf. n. 14) is aimed at by a Bodhisattva (cf. DBhS X.A-F) and after having acquired the Knowledge of (all) the Modes of the Path {mârgâkâraônatâ), cf. Ruegg, Theorie*p. 189ff.

  2. |65|  Patterned upon RÄ V 41: tâsâm purvam pramuditâ bodhisattvapramodanât \samyojanatrayahânes ta- thâgatakulodbhavât || Cf. also MABhi 16.12-14 On pramuditâbhûmi,cf. MABhâ" 12.13-32.11. For samyojanatraya: satkäyadrsti> vicikitsâ and êZlavrataparâmarêat cf. MABha 16.11-17 and réf. PED p. 656.

  3. |66|  For a parallel cf. MABha 17.5ff. ad 1 1 i.e. gunodbhavaanddosaksaya{néspa~skyon zad) and esp. RÂ V 67, 97.

  4. |67|  Cf. e.g. RÂ IV 84 cited supra note 21.

  5. |68|  This stanza forms a punyaparinâmanâ similar to otherclosingstanzasinhymns,odesetc. cf. e.g. Nagirjuna's Catuhstava* RÄ IV 90, see also MABhâ 409.9-10.






AAA Abhisamayâlamkârâlokï - Abhisamayilam- karaloka Prajnaparamitävyäkhyä (Commentary on Astasahasrika Prajnapäramitä) by Hari- bhadra, together with the text commented on. Ed. by U. Wogihara. 2 Vol. Tokyo 1932- 1935.

AK Abhidharmakoéa - v. Abhidharmakosabhäsya AK(Bhâ) Abhidharmakos'a(bhasya) - Abhidharm-Kosha- Bhasya P.Pradhan. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series VIII, Patna

CS Catuhstava by Nagarjuna. Edition of Nepal-

ese MS of CS with akaritika in Lindtner, Chr.: Nagarjuniana, Appendix p. 290ff. and partially ed. and tr. pp. 121-161.

DBhS Daeabhumikasutra - Ed. Johannes Rahder Le Muséon, N.S. 39, Leuvain 1926.

MA Madhyamakivatira - v. Madhyamakavatara- (bhasya).

MA(Bhâ) Madhyamakâvatâra(bhâsya) by Candrakïrti. (Traduction Tibétain). Publiée par Louis de La Vallée Poussin. Bibliotheca Buddhica IX, St. -Pétersbourg 1907-1912. Partially tr. by La Vallée Poussin, L. de: Le Muséon N.S.

81907pp.249-317,N.S.101911pp. 271- 358, N.S. 11 1912 pp. 236-328 and by H. Tauscher:Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde, Heft 5, Wien 1981.

MMK Mulamadhyamakakariki - by Nagarjuna. Ed. by J.W. de Jong, The Adhyar Library Series 109




Madras 1977. Lindtner, Chr.: Nagarjunas Fi- losofiske Vaerker, Indiske Studier II, Cop- enhagen 1982, pp. 177-215.
Prasannapada byCandraklrti.Mulamadhyama- kakarika de Nagârjuna avec la Prasannapada Commentaire de Candrakïrti. Publ. par L. de La Vallée Poussin, Bibliotheca Buddhica IV St.-Petersbourg 1903-1913. To be suppl. by deJong:Texteritical notesonthePrasan- napada, IIJ XX pp. 25-59, 217-252. Pancavimsatisähasrikäprajnäpiramitä - The Pancavimsatisihasrikä Prajnäpäramitä. Edit- ed by Nalinaksha Dutt, Calcutta Oriental Series 28, London 1934.

Ratnivall by Nagârjuna. Critical ed. by M. Hahn, Bonn 1982. Satasähasrikäprajnäpäramitä - Çatasâhasrikâ- Prajnäpäramitä. Ed. by P. Ghosa, Bibliothe- ca Indica, Calcutta 1902-1914!



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Conze, E.: The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, Berke- ley 1975

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skrit Literature, London 1932
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Haven 1953


Frauwallner, E.: Die Philosophie des Buddhismus, Ber- lin 1969

Guenther, H.V.: The Jewel Ornament of Liberation,Lon- don 1959

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of Moksakaragupta. Kyoto 1966
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Lamotte, Ê.: Histoire de bouddhisme indien, des ori-

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bandhu. Traduit et annoté par L. de La Val-

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La Vallée Poussin, L. de: Vijnaptimitratâsiddhi. La SiddhideHiuan-tsang,I-III,Paris 1928-

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Schayer, S.: Feuer und Brennstoff. Ein Kapitel aus dem Mädhyamikasästra des Nägärjuna mit der Vrtti des Candrakirti, RO VII, pp. 26-52 - Lwöw 1930

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  1. 1:  Ernst.Steinkellner, Verse-Index of Dharmaklrti's Works (Tibetan V ersions), 1977. XIV, 225 p.

  2. 2:  Lobsang Dargyay, Die Legende von den Sieben Prinzessinnen (SaptakumärikS-AvadSna) . In der poetischen Fassung von

    Guhyadatta/Gopadatta aufgrund der tibetischen Übersetzung her- ausgegeben, übersetzt und bearbeitet. 1978. X, 162 p .

  3. 3:  Piotr Klafkowski, The Secret Deliverance of the Sixth Dalai Lama, as narrated by Dharmatâla. Edited from the Hor Chos-

    •byun and translated into English, with an introduction and comments. 1979. VI, 93 p.

  4. 4:  Gudrun Bühnemann, Der Allwissende Buddha. Ein Beweis und seine Probleme. Ratnakïrti's Sarvajnasiddhi. 1980. L, 175 p.

  5. 5:  Helmut Tauscher, Candraklrti - Madhyamakavatarafr und Madhya- makavatarabhasyam (Kapitel VI, Vers 166-226). 1981. XXVII, 214 p.


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gyi rnam bzag pa Legs bead rgya mtsho'i rba rlabs. 1981. 20 p.

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